Month: October 2021

Learn Ethical Hacking for Free – Basics


Hai friends,

Here, I welcome you to my blog. This blog is about Ethical hacking – Basic knowledge and Courses.


To begin with,

What is Ethical Hacking?

Ethical hacking involves an authorized attempt to gain unauthorized access to a computer system, application, or data. Ethical hacking is also known as White hat Hacking or Penetration Testing.

Ethical hacking is used to improve the security of the systems and networks by fixing the vulnerability while testing and they use the same tools, tricks, and techniques that malicious hackers used, but with the permission of the authorized person.


How do Ethical Hackers Work?

The purpose of ethical hacking is to look at the security of a system or network’s infrastructure. An ethical hacker must gain access from the owner and attempt to bypass system security, then find and expose any weak points that could be taken advantage of by a malicious hacker.

Vulnerabilities are typically found in improper system configuration and hardware or software flaws.                    

Courtesy: This picture is downloaded from


Types of Hackers

Before getting to Brief summary, let’s walk through the image.


White Hat Hackers

White Hat hackers are also known as Ethical Hackers. Ethical hackers get permission from the owner and find weaknesses in a computer or a network system as a part of penetration testing and vulnerability assessments.

Black Hat Hackers

Black Hat hackers, also known as crackers, are those who hack to gain unauthorized access to a system and harm its operations or steal sensitive information.

Grey Hat Hackers

They are not certified, hackers. These types of hackers work with either good or bad intentions. They act without malicious intent but for their fun, they exploit a security weakness in a computer system or network without the owner’s permission or knowledge.

Green Hat Hackers

A green hat hacker is a newbie in the hacking world. As such, green hat hackers may not be as familiar with all the security mechanisms companies or individuals may be using.

Red Hat Hackers

Red hat hackers are again a blend of both black hat and white hat hackers. They are usually on the level of hacking government agencies, top-secret information hubs, and generally anything that falls under the category of sensitive information.

Blue Hat Hackers

A blue hat hacker is someone outside computer security consulting firms who is used to bug test a system before its launch. They look for loopholes that can be exploited and try to close these gaps. Microsoft also uses the term Blue Hat to represent a series of security briefing events.

Elite Hackers

This is a social status among hackers, which is used to describe the most skilled. Newly discovered exploits will circulate among these hackers.

Script Kiddie

A script kiddie is a non-expert who breaks into computer systems by using pre-packaged automated tools written by others, usually with little understanding of the underlying concept, hence the term Kiddie.


A neophyte, “n00b”, or “newbie” or “Green Hat Hacker” is someone who is new to hacking or phreaking and has almost no knowledge or experience of the workings of technology and hacking.


A hacktivist is a hacker who utilizes technology to announce a social, ideological, religious, or political message. In general, most hacktivism involves website defacement or denial-of-service attacks.

White hat hacker vs Black hat hacker

Black Hat Hackers’ objective:

  • To steal valuable information from another user
  • To steal money through transactions and accounts
  • To get access to free music and videos
  • Downloading free hacking software which is considered an illegal activity
  • To steal valuable information from military/navy organizations etc
  • To access restricted networking spaces


White Hat Hackers’ objective:

  • To improve the security framework in a system
  • Developing high-security programming language like Linux
  • Developing most of the security software for organizations
  • Checking and updating security software
  • Developing programs like pop up blocker, firewall, and ad blocker

Types of Hacking attacks

Here, Listed some of the modern attacks

Courtesy: This picture is downloaded from

  • Malware
  • Phishing
  • SQL Injection Attack.
  • Cross-Site Scripting (XSS)
  • Denial of Service (DoS)
  • Session Hijacking
  • Man-in-the-Middle Attacks.
  • Credential Reuse.

In addition to, for explanation visit here.

What problems does Ethical hacking identify?

Some of the most common vulnerabilities discovered by ethical hackers include:

  • Injection attacks
  • Broken authentication
  • Security misconfigurations
  • Use of components with known vulnerabilities
  • Sensitive data exposure

Likewise, After the testing period, ethical hackers prepare a detailed report. This documentation includes steps to compromise the discovered vulnerabilities and steps to patch or mitigate them.


What are the key concepts of ethical hacking?

Hacking experts follow four key protocol concepts, therefore

Stay legal. Obtain proper approval before accessing and performing a security assessment.

Define the scope. Determine the scope of the assessment so that the ethical hacker’s work remains legal and within the organization’s approved boundaries.

Report vulnerabilities. Notify the organization of all vulnerabilities discovered during the assessment. Provide remediation advice for resolving these vulnerabilities.

Respect data sensitivity. Depending on the data sensitivity, ethical hackers may have to agree to a non-disclosure agreement, in addition to other terms and conditions required by the assessed organization.


Ethical Hacking Career Scope

As per the current statistics, we have only 32 percent of people in the IT industry who are professionally skilled in fighting against cyber attacks.

Seeing the exponential growth in the digital economy. As a result, we can say that the field of Ethical Hacking is also going to expand, and every organization will require highly skilled Ethical Hackers to ensure greater security of critical data and systems.

Here, Listed some of the jobs for Ethical Hacker:

  • Information Security Analyst
  • Cyber Security Analyst
  • Security Engineer
  • Penetration Tester
  • Security Analyst
  • Information Security Manager
  • Cyber Security Engineer


Do you need special degrees and certifications to become an ethical hacker?

The short answer is no; there are many resources online that will assist you with learning how to become an ethical hacker and penetration tester.

However, there are some limiting factors to this approach. One issue is that there is a lot of material, and trying to figure out what is important and what is not can be somewhat daunting. Another issue is that finding employment will almost always be easier if you have a certification behind your name.

To end with,


What skills and certifications should an ethical hacker obtain?

All ethical hackers should have:

  • Expertise in scripting languages.
  • Proficiency in operating systems.
  • Thorough knowledge of networking.
  • A solid foundation in the principles of information security.

Some of the most well-known and acquired certifications are,

EC Council: Certified Ethical Hacker Certification

EC Council: Certified Network Defender Certification

Offensive Security Certified Professional (OSCP) Certification

CompTIA Security+

Cisco’s CCNA Security



In summary, all the above contents are information about Ethical hacking. Therefore, if you are looking for a career in the Cyber security field then Ethical hacking certification will boost your resume.

Visit here to understand the importance of Cybersecurity.

Author: Kaviyarasu.D, CSE (dept),  PSG Institute of Technology and Applied Research